Kty.include vs ieref

Both kty.include and ieref are inclusion mechanisms. The content of the target replaces the current element. Kty.include is always resolved. Ieref is converted to xref for online media.

Use kty.include on low-level fragment inclusions, i.e. attention, inline-wrapper, section etc. otherwise use ieref.


Make sure that the included IEs root element is valid at the inserted location

The current inclusion is an attention, which is allowed at the current location.


Make sure that the included IE is of type xml

Trying to include an excel document, which is not allowed.

Make sure not to create circular references, i.e. by trying to include the same IE as a descendant

Circular reference!
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